We are fixated on developing robots that have a human-like form and take on human characteristics. We have come to learn by interacting with humanoids that “observing the action of humanoid robots and human agents may rely on similar perceptual processes” in humans . The Intelligent Robotics Laboratory at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, “believe that humanoid robots can also play an important role in manufacturing, especially holonic manufacturing” . Humanoids are designed using advanced “smooth-pursuit tracking, saccades, binocular vergence, and vestibular-ocular and opto-kinetic reflex”  systems. “Imitation learning”  later called “reinforcement learning”  uses several inverse dynamics, inverse kinematics and oculomotor reflex techniques to ‘teach’ humanoids how to be more human. We are even building social skills into humanoid robotics . We have “cognitive developmental robotics as a new paradigm for the design of humanoid robots”  and we are even “using humanoid robots to study human behavior”  – and let’s not forget the very important “Robo-Erectus: a low-cost autonomous humanoid soccer robot” . The full list is well beyond the scope of this thesis, I simply point out that it is inexhaustible and the humanoid effort is certainly one of the leading human-robotic interfaces being developed today.
All of these efforts are built upon a similar notion that we must “build machines that interact naturally with people”. However, there are several problems to the humanoid robotic manifestation. One such problem is that; “when intelligence is approached in an incremental manner, with strict reliance on interfacing to the real world through perception and action, reliance on representation disappears” . Additionally, if we make a robot that looks and acts like a human, then they are not so much extensions of us but attempts at becoming one of us. The difference being that robotic “exoskeletons and robotic prosthetics”  are designed to be extensions of the body and therefore mind whereas humanoids are designed to be replicas of the body and therefore mind (something I estimate is both useless and unlikely). I believe that having a humanoid fixation ultimately limits our ability to develop cybernetics that utilizes the full potential of humans, machines and human machine interaction. Why would we build robots that are based on the same limitations of motion and physical capacity we have, if we are trying to make machines that compliment and extend our capacities? ‘Art-Bot’ is therefore liberated of said humanoid fixation. E. Oztop, D. W. Franklin, T. Chaminade, and G. Cheng, “HUMAN–HUMANOID INTERACTION: IS A HUMANOID ROBOT PERCEIVED AS A HUMAN?,” Int. J. Humanoid Robot., vol. 02, no. 04, pp. 537–559, Dec. 2005.  Kawamura K, D.M. Wilkes, T. Pack, M. Bishay, and J. Barile, “Humanoids: Future Robots for Home and Factory,” presented at the Proceedings of the First Internati onal Symposium on Humanoid Robots, Tokyo, 1996, pp. 53–62.  R. A. Brooks, C. Breazeal, M. Marjanović, B. Scassellati, and M. M. Williamson, “The Cog Project: Building a Humanoid Robot,” in Computation for Metaphors, Analogy, and Agents, C. L. Nehaniv, Ed. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1999, pp. 52–87.  S. Schaal, “Is imitation learning the route to humanoid robots?,” Trends Cogn. Sci., vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 233–242, Jun. 1999.  S. Vijayakumar, T. Shibata, and S. Schaal, “Reinforcement learning for humanoid robotics,” in Autonomous Robot, 2003, p. 2002.  B. Scassellati, “Imitation and Mechanisms of Joint Attention: A Developmental Structure for Building Social Skills on a Humanoid Robot,” in Computation for Metaphors, Analogy, and Agents, C. L. Nehaniv, Ed. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 1999, pp. 176–195.  M. Asada, K. F. MacDorman, H. Ishiguro, and Y. Kuniyoshi, “Cognitive developmental robotics as a new paradigm for the design of humanoid robots,” Robot. Auton. Syst., vol. 37, no. 2–3, pp. 185–193, Nov. 2001.  C. G. Atkeson, J. G. Hale, F. Pollick, M. Riley, S. Kotosaka, S. Schaul, T. Shibata, G. Tevatia, A. Ude, S. Vijayakumar, E. Kawato, and M. Kawato, “Using humanoid robots to study human behavior,” IEEE Intell. Syst. Their Appl., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 46–56, 2000.  C. Zhou and P. K. Yue, “Robo-Erectus: a low-cost autonomous humanoid soccer robot,” Adv. Robot., vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 717–720, 2004.  B. Scassellati, “Foundations for a theory of mind for a humanoid robot,” 2001.  R. A. Brooks, “Intelligence without representation,” Artif. Intell., vol. 47, no. 1–3, pp. 139–159, Jan. 1991.  R. Bogue, “Exoskeletons and robotic prosthetics: a review of recent developments,” Ind. Robot Int. J., vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 421–427, Aug. 2009.